Tag Archives: DRI Nigeria

Reflections on the Bristow Helicopter Crash in Lagos (August 2015)

Philip Keshiro, DRI Nigeria

Appreciation

We would like to appreciate all the agencies and officials that took part in responding during the recent Bristow Helicopter crash.

Review of the incident

From reports we were told that the first responding agency got to the scene at least one hour after the incident as reported.

From the visuals shown most if not all of rescue efforts (diving) were carried out by local divers with their boats.

Preparedness Issues from Incident

a. Total reliance on local divers with inadequate tools only compound or elongate the timing for rescue.

b. Timeliness of responding – Getting to the scene of accident in one (1) hour needs improvement, the reason simply is that it takes less than 2 minutes for a submerged victim to die. Therefore one hour before official rescue commence is too long.

c. Too many agencies performing same role leads to confusion and does not show there is a plan, or joint exercise with TEAMS from each agency.

d. Lack of command center to take charge of the incident can also cause further damages to victims and properties

e. In this type of technical disaster, who should be in charge?

Our Opinion

A. Agencies such as FAAN, NCAA and the company Bristow Helicopters, and the coordinating agency LASEMA should have a plan that should looks at an instance where a plane or Helicopter will fail to get to the airport, looking beyond ICAO regulation which stipulates a specific radius, reference to Airport Emergency Response plan.

Questions to be asked at the data gathering stage (Risk Evaluation)

• Is it possible for plane or helicopters to drop or develop problems before getting to the airport?

o Probability is Yes (It has happened before – Dana)

• Can we get to such site at the required response time (Less than 10 minutes)

o Yes / No – Answer – NO

o What are the Resources required to meet this response time?

Please note that because of the nature of our roads and traffic, should we be looking at Medical Power Bike? As first initial response followed by the ambulances and aircraft ambulances?

• Do we have teams trained for rescue at sea or lagoons based on flight plans?

• Do we need to develop some response capabilities for these areas such as U.S Coast Guards?

• Do we need to involve Navy boats personnel to frequent our sea and lagoons?

B. Training on Disaster Management

Before agencies can come together for rescue efforts, it is presupposed that each agency should have a plan and would have developed some level of proficiencies within its purview, before coming together as one on TEAM basis to work on an incident.

Why did we say Training is lacking

a. Many agencies were in charge – Everybody getting on to the camera. Who is in charge? A look at the Incident Command System will explain this

b. Teams were not clearly visible or seen to be doing a particular assignment based on their regular legal job. You expect FRSC and Police at the perimeter of the cordon area. If incident have been on land, we would have had encroachment.

c. We noted that both strategic and operational personnel of the State and Agencies were at the scene. We need to avoid this practice to guide against secondary occurrence.

d. No visible sign of Command Center, therefore we can safely say there is no Emergency Operations Center (EOC).

Conclusion

We will conclude by appreciating the efforts of responders; however issues raised here are not to rubbish the good works of our various agencies but to point the way forward for improvement.

What is the plan? It is called Business Continuity. Take a look at the Nigerian Pandemic Plan; it appears more than 40 times, It is the tool for managing disaster for the Private Sector BUT the principles are also used by the Public Sector to mitigate and plan against incidents and disasters, the publicity, enforcement of Business Continuity ought to be the responsibility of the Federal Republic of Nigeria according to the Nigerian Pandemic Plan.

PHILIP KESHIRO
DRI NIGERIA

Courtesy: DRI Professionals in Nigeria.
www.drii.org
www.dri-nigeria.org

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National Continuity Plan vs Total Business Resilience: In whose court is the ball?

Adewale Akinwale

Winning in a game of Tennis revolves around a player’s ability to hit the ball back at the opposing player with as much dexterity as possible. Getting the ball back across the net ensures that the bulk does not end in your half of the court, in which case you would have lost a point. The flurry of warnings and notices of closure/service outages from core service providers to Nigerian customers in the last week of May 2015 was rather suggestive of a weakened tennis player who could do no more than swing his racket and hit the ball in the direction of the hapless spectators rather than at the terrifying opponent.

12It was undoubtedly the toughest of times for the nation and its citizenry faced what commentators arguably  referred to as the worst fuel scarcity situation ever recorded in a country that has become synonymous for fuel queues over the years, despite being a major global exporter of crude oil. So this was clearly not the characteristic, walk in the park fuel scarcity situation that everyone had gotten used to; agreed. However, the actions and reactions of many corporate organizations ranging from radio and TV stations, banks and financial service providers to telecoms service providers and airliners could not have painted a grimmer picture of hopelessness for the customers at such a difficult time. Two major telecommunications service providers were the first to throw up their hands in submission to the monstrosity of the situation, and just about then, core service providers in other sectors started throwing in the towel in record time as if in a game of firsts.

The shutdown not only caused stress for customers but almost threatened the national sovereignty of the country. The critical question therefore to be asked is, should we hold the national government responsible for lacking a national continuity plan that applies to fuel scarcity situations or should businesses have had their own comprehensive continuity plans independent of any government intervention?

Interestingly, amidst the doom and gloom, a start-up ecommerce firm, Jumia Nigeria stood out and positioned strategically to take advantage of the situation. It was prepared for such a situation and also used the opportunity to promote its energy efficient product lines. That is resilience in the face of adversity and the big businesses have a lot to learn from the fast growing online retailer.

As a continuity professional, I would hope that lessons were learnt from the past experience and that both the government and private organizations are better prepared to manage any such distressing situation in the future. A national continuity art on the part of the government and a total business resilience plan for privately run businesses will definitely save valuable downtime hours and greatly impact on both national and corporate competitive advantage.  The wow factor is in that simple question that observers will be asking “how are they able to stay open?”

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Adewale Akinwale is the Head of Enterprise Risk Management at the Nigerian Aviation Handling Company (Nahco Aviance). He was named finalist under the Awards category of Industry Newcomer of the year 2015 by the Disaster Recovery Institute USA.

BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT & DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (DRR)

Philip Keshiro, DRI Nigeria

The Sendai Framework for DRR 2015 is a great improvement to the Hygo Framework for Action 2005 – 2015: Building Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.

Having gone through the Hygo Framework, I summarized it with a statement ‘Developing countries help your citizens’.

It was generally not ‘punchy’ and clear BECAUSE any time I get in contact with those implementing DRR, the question is “what has Business Continuity got to do with DRR? ”. Hence, the understanding was flawed (my opinion), implementation was without a clear direction, and coordination was very poor.

I have gone through the Sendal DRR 2015-2030, and I am impressed with the detail and technical terms as shown below – as lifted from the document

The Hyogo Framework for Action: lessons learned, gaps identified and future challenges

1. It is urgent and critical to anticipate, plan for and reduce disaster risk in order to more effectively protect persons, communities and countries, their livelihoods, health, cultural heritage, socioeconomic assets and ecosystems, and thus strengthen their resilience.
2. There has to be a broader and a more people-centred preventive approach to disaster risk. Disaster risk reduction practices need to be multi-hazard and multisectoral based, inclusive and accessible in order to be efficient and effective.
There is a need for the public and private sectors and civil society organizations, as well as academia and scientific and research institutions, to work more closely together and to create opportunities for collaboration, and for businesses to integrate disaster risk into their management practices.

It is important to know that my concept of developing countries is basically AFRICA (Nigeria).

Expected outcome and goal

1. To attain the expected outcome, the following goal must be pursued:

Prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience

The pursuance of this goal requires the enhancement of the implementation capacity __and capability of developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States, landlocked developing countries and African countries, as well as middle-income countries facing specific challenges, including the mobilization of support through international cooperation for the provision of means of implementation in accordance with their national priorities.

Findings

1. The goals if it has to be pursued, the knowledge base of the custodians of the DRR must be improved. The international community and the United Nations MUST come out with CLEAR statement that gives direction to help the developing countries who may not understand how to get this ‘implementation capacity’. Most developed countries and leaders within DRR do not even have a clear understanding of Risk Management, Continuity Of Operations Plan (COOP), Business Continuity Planning/Management, Crisis Communication. They do not know how this concept can be used as effective tool in reducing disasters.
2. Economic disasters are not even regarded as disasters, because industries are not generally seen as part of the SYSTEM, meaning that there is no direct connection between financial disaster (collapse of one bank) and physical disasters. To us, until you have deaths running into millions, then you have disaster, without mincing word, you will be told that according to the UN definition of a disaster, ‘this is not a disaster’.
3. A need to go down to the basic of what constitute a disaster and what is a ‘disaster chain’.

III. Guiding principles

(b) Disaster risk reduction requires that responsibilities be shared by central Governments and relevant national authorities, sectors and stakeholders, as appropriate to their national circumstances and system of governance;

(e) Disaster risk reduction and management depends on coordination mechanisms within and across sectors and with relevant stakeholders at all levels, and. it requires the full engagement of all State institutions of an executive and legislative nature at national and local levels and a clear articulation of responsibilities across public and private stakeholders, including business and academia, to ensure mutual outreach, partnership, complementarity in roles and accountability and follow-up;

(g) Disaster risk reduction requires a multi-hazard approach and inclusive risk-informed decision-making based on the open exchange and dissemination of disaggregated data, including by sex, age and disability, as well as on the easily accessible, up-to-date, comprehensible, science-based, non-sensitive risk information, complemented by traditional knowledge;

(l) An effective and meaningful global partnership and the further strengthening of international cooperation, including the fulfillment of respective commitments of official development assistance by developed countries, are essential for effective disaster risk management;

Comments

As beautiful as this guiding principles is, it can ONLY be achieve when different agencies and organizations have a level of understanding which is derived from a standard. Only then can there be coordination (on the field). Each of this organization would have acquired some level of capacity development, have a functional plan in place (within their “different” agencies), which would have been exercise (based on this standard) before coming together as one.
Most cases, you find out that confusion and stampede is the order of the day, where you have those wielding executive power without basic disaster management skill. This is an area we need to walk on.

For (I), This is where DRI International has to form a global partnership with UN to train different nations on the basic knowledge required to anticipate disaster, plan, with the ability to respond, and recover and build better facility that have been damaged or destroyed, using the principles of Business Continuity Planning
.
IV. Priorities for action

1. Taking into account the experience gained through the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, and in pursuance of the expected outcome and goal, there is a need for focused action within and across sectors by States at local, national, regional and global levels in the following four priority areas:
2. Understanding disaster risk;
3. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk;
4. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience;
5. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

Priority 1. Understanding disaster risk

1. Policies and practices for disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge can be leveraged for the purpose of pre-disaster risk assessment, for prevention and mitigation and for the development and implementation of appropriate preparedness and effective response to disasters
National and local levels
2. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Promote the collection, analysis, management and use of relevant data and practical information. Ensure its dissemination, taking into account the needs of different categories of users, as appropriate;

(d) Systematically evaluate, record, share and publicly account for disaster losses and understand the economic, social, health, education, environmental and cultural heritage impacts, as appropriate, in the context of event-specific hazard-exposure and vulnerability information;

(l) Promote the incorporation of disaster risk knowledge, including disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery and rehabilitation,__ in formal and non-formal education, as well as in civic education at all levels, as well as in professional education and training;

V. Role of stakeholders

1. While States have the overall responsibility for reducing disaster risk, it is a shared responsibility between Governments and relevant stakeholders. In particular, non-state stakeholders play an important role as enablers in providing support to States, in accordance with national policies, laws and regulations, in the implementation of the framework at local, national, regional and global levels. Their commitment, goodwill, knowledge, experience and resources will be required.

(c) Business, professional associations and private sector financial institutions, including financial regulators and accounting bodies, as well as philanthropic foundations, to: integrate disaster risk management, including business continuity, into business models and practices via disaster risk-informed investments, especially in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises; engage in awareness-raising and training for their employees and customers; engage in and support research and innovation as well as technological development for disaster risk management; share and disseminate knowledge, practices and non-sensitive data; and actively participate, as appropriate and under the guidance of the public sector, in the development of normative frameworks and technical standards that incorporate disaster risk management;

(o) Increase business resilience and protection of livelihoods and productive assets throughout the supply chains. Ensure continuity of services and integrate disaster risk management into business models and practices;

(g) Ensure the continuity of operations and planning, including social and economic recovery, and the provision of basic services in the post-disaster phase;

Conclusion

I have tried to highlight areas where developing countries or individuals will find simple and direct instructions as road map.

It is important to state here that based on my personal knowledge and experience, the knowledge of business continuity planning as packaged by DRI International, is the basic knowledge required that can help executives in DRR Management, DRR staff and ALL agencies of government and ministries. Without this knowledge, the African continent will only be moving round in circles without direction, this will be evidence in the following ways;

▪ Lack of understanding of basic terms used in disaster management evidenced during regional and international forums (some officials will ask what is COOP, or Business Continuity Planning – What are these got to do with disaster).

▪ Lack of coordinated response during disasters

▪ Without appropriate plans, proper exercising which should improve plan will not be conducted, if conducted it is used as ‘public show‘ without any aim

▪ Different agencies will be working at cross road, trying to gain popularity from disaster incidents instead of focusing on safety and prevent loss of lives.

It is important that we all take the management of disaster as a profession, and create an appetite for more knowledge in disaster management.

DRR/Safety Institutes, Federal Government, State Governments and Local Governments MUST strive to have the knowledge of Business Continuity Planning principles which is an appropriate tool for Disaster Risk Reduction and a MUST.

May I ask, are you certified?

Kindly contact us on the following; 08054561141, 08125377462, or onaskme@dri-nigeria.org for further inquiries.

Please see www.drii.org, www.dri-nigeria.org

Yours sincerely,

PHILIP KESHIRO ABCP, CISSP, CISA, COBIT 5, AIMIS, ACIA, AISPON, MBA
PROGRAM DIRECTOR

DRI Course Content

BCM - Year 2015 Schedule

1

Nyanya Bomb Blast – Another Wake Up Call

Philip Keshiro, DRI Nigeria

To view this article in its original location, please click here.

I would have commented on the Malaysian Air Incident but for the fact that my mother died during this period and was buried on the 11th April 2014. The various activities relating to the burial were too much for me to sit and write.

The recent Nyanya bomb blast is another tragedy with no answer and most of the things I have been reading or commentaries on TV are not the solution.

What then is the solution?

It is unfortunate that when you want to hide a secret from people in our race, just put it in the book. This is with a lot of apology.

Issues of Security and Emergencies should be handled bottom up, not top down approach. A top down approach breeds passivity, lack of coordination, and makes mockery of our nation.

Please in your mind kindly compare what occur in Boston last year with what happened in Nyanya.

Nyanya

Boston

We are yet to identify those that drove the car and ran away as reported Within 24 hours the identity of the culprits were known and broadcasted – No sentiment
All agencies worked together without any statement such as ;we are on red alert etc We witnessed actions televised live.
No periodic update to members of the public – No concrete information yet There was periodic information, with the US President categorically saying, we will get ‘you’.
This may be the end of the investigation as the Kano case. The terrorists were caught with one dead and another injured within a week of the incident

What is the difference between security personnel abroad and ours?

–          They have data gathering capability (even on the spot)

–          Trained to focus first on issues of life (Human Life comes first)

–          Well trained to read and analyze situation

–          Aware of new technology or trends

Example:

The Nigerian DRAFT Pandemic Response Plan categorically states the following as shown below, breaking down how the nation should plan for pandemic related disasters, however, IT IS THE SAME PRINCIPLE FOR TERRORISM;

  • 1. National Government Planning & Coordination
    • Government is committed to multisectoral pandemic preparedness
    • Federal government assures continuity of essential services
    • Criteria:Essential service role and responsibilities identified
      Promotes Business Continuity Planning
      Provides basic planning assumptions
  • 2. All sub-national government levels involved
    • Whether States and FCT level have multisectoral preparedness and response plan and operationalised. Including Local Governments
  • 3. Whole of society planning ie Civil Society, INGO and IGOs, Private Sector, Vulnerable groups.
    • All the above must have Preparedness and response structures to protect vulnerable groups …
  • 4. Sectoral planning and Continuity of Essential Services
    • These are listed as:
      • Health – Whether sector has response and business continuity plan that has been tested
      • Food – Whether sector has response and business continuity plan that has been tested
      • Water & Sanitation ( Portable water sewage & waste management) – Whether sector has response and business continuity plan that has been tested
      • Energy Sector – Whether sector has response and business continuity plan that has been tested
      • Public Security and Order – Whether sector has response and business continuity plan that has been tested
      • Finance – Whether sector has response and business continuity plan that has been tested
      • Telecommunications – Whether sector has response and business continuity plan that has been tested
      • Transport – Whether sector has response and business continuity plan that has been tested
        • Criteria:
        • Key Sector actors (public & private) are identifies and have been encouraged to plan
        • Guidance for key actors in sector is available
        • Hazard & Risk analysis has been completed for the sector.

All ministries, agencies, and infrastructures i.e NYANYA Park and others should have a BCP plan in place.  

Why this write up.

The Pandemic plan was co-authored by the USAID and other US related agencies, if they can slot in BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANNING as the BASIS for managing disasters why are we not looking in this direction to solve our problems. A large number of our top and middle level government officials do not know anything about this subject matter.

A Business Continuity plan will have helped to mitigate this NYANYA Park disaster in the following ways;

A Risk assessment – will have brought out through imagination, foresight, and prior incidents that the park is vulnerable. Control measures to mitigate will be the following;

  • Separate Passenger drive in from the Bus Parks – Let the passengers walk with their load or with trolleys.
  • Have in place CCTV to capture movement of passengers and ongoing activities within.
  • Restructure the market to meet the 1st condition if possible.
  • etc

The effect is that, should there be an incident or a bomb blast, the POLICE, SSS and other agencies will have some form of intelligence to work with. Without this, we are laughing stock in the comity of advanced nations.

The steps within the BCP are:

The Ten Professional Practices are as follows:

Pre-Planning Stage

1. Program Initiation and Management

2. Risk Evaluation and Control

3. Business Impact Analysis

Planning Stage

4. Developing Business Continuity Strategies

5. Emergency Preparedness and Response

6. Developing and Implementing Business Continuity Plans

Post-Planning Stage

7. Awareness and Training Programs

8. Business Continuity Plan Exercise, Audit, and Maintenance

9. Crisis Communications

10. Coordination with External Agencies

Conclusion:

The security agencies should start to have appetite and understand what business continuity planning is all about and how to use it to reduce to the barest minimum this incident of mass killing.

The words we hear such as ‘Citizens should go about their normal duty as the government or Police…’. These words are not inspiring, not soothing, they are reactive, not proactive. We should not be counting casualties in hundreds and thousands, not to talk of one life. The answer lies within the government archive and in possession of some of us reading this write-up.

Reacting after each blast is wickedness, mental laziness, a lack of ability to work, and lack of love for human lives.  

Please check the Nigerian Pandemic Response Plan.

I will explain more and break down the components of BCP if required.

You can ask for an extract of areas quoted above if interested.

Thank you.

Philip Keshiro

Attack on Schools in Yobe, Military-Private Partnership

Philip Keshiro, DRI Nigeria

To view this article in its original location, please click here.

I had an experience that will explain the topic above.

About 2 years ago, I was in Abuja, the outskirt, during the days when bombing of churches was the order of the day. I decided around 8 pm to go round and see churches around and get a firsthand experience why they have become easy targets.

The first church gave me all the reasons I needed. The church perimeter was in total darkness. The church (in my estimation) was on minimum of 2 plots of land, with only a building at the far end. While praises was on, only two bulbs where lighted at the entrance, the inside was fully lighted, and anyone can fully see through the activities going on while the onlooker is in darkness.

What are the Issues

  • There is no official or worker outside to monitor happenings outside the church.
  • Why should the perimeter be in total darkness without any illumination?
  • I could have easily dropped a bag containing explosive materials without anyone seeing me.
  • Okada riders were moving around even dropping church members that were late for service, no process of even passive access control by way of greeting and asking questions if a visitor or new member.
  • I stood in front of the church in darkness for more than 30 minutes, nobody noticed me.

The bible says Nehemiah was building with one hand, with the sword on the other hand.

The essence of this story is that the public, private and religious organizations MUST be conscious of its environment, should know about Safety, Security, and Emergency operations/Response.

Yobe Incident.

I do not have a firsthand knowledge of what transpired (but you can relate the story above to a normal school), however, it is important that ALL schools should have the knowledge to do a simple Risk Evaluation and Control of its environment looking at the following

  • Threats (What are the negative things that could happen to us)
  • Vulnerability (Weakness) – Lack of power in an environment at night where attacks can occur is a sure weakness (send the children home, turn the school to day).
  • Probability (Can the threat occur. Once you have such occurrence close to you, in another state with same characteristics, it can happen to you). The probability is High, Medium or Low.

With this you make your decision, and make it fast, without unnecessary protocols. Either you want to improve on your control (counter measures – in military) or you want to vacate the environment, since we are looking at loss of lives.  

ALL SCHOOLS (Primary, Secondary and Universities) should start to develop appetite for Safety/Security/Emergency Response capabilities comprehensively taught in Business Continuity Planning).

For the Schools: What they need to think about:

  • Do your Risk Evaluation and Control
  • You should be able to identify Applicable Emergency Preparedness & Response Regulation (If we have any)
  • You should identify the Potential types of emergencies and the resulting Scenarios / Imparts
  • Identify the Response Capabilities Needed for
    • Protection of Life Safety
      • Evacuation, Sheltering, Shelter-in-Place, Lock down
      • Ability to Account for personnel/students
  • Protection of Property
  • Protection of Environmental Contamination

Military

Again, I cannot say I am an expert in military operations, but I can say a little with my knowledge in Business Continuity Planning.

One important thing I notice is that we do not have sophisticated communication system.

In modern warfare, communication is as important as eating with water. During the public show of the Terrorist Brigade in the army, with designing eye, I could not see any of the private, or officer with communication equipment, how do you communicate with the Operations center? It is not only the numbers that win a war in this modern warfare; communication plays a lot of role.

  • Newspaper report: How can an operation go on for 5 hours, without response?
  • How can the barracks be infiltrated (not once, or twice) and equipments damage?
  • How can we be recording deaths in hundreds or thousands on a monthly basis
  • Are there special teams within that are equipped with equipments needed?

A fighter jet even from Lagos should get to Yobe in 2 hours (at most) if informed and ready.

The damage caused by this type of reports is not good, and it makes us to be less than being happy to be called a Nigerian. We want to be proud of our military.

Communications capabilities should include the ability to gather information, coordinate activities, and disseminate instructions and information. ( DRI International) Do we have this?

 

STATE SECURITY

The State Security like the Homeland Security in US, must promote Business Continuity planning within the private and public sector. This is what is done in US by the Homeland Security. The effect of lack of preparedness is directly related to unnecessary loss of lives.

The military needs the State Security to promote this standard to help detect crimes, and resilience needed during disasters within the public and private sectors.

You CANNOT fight terrorism without the knowledge of Business Continuity Planning. Other countries WILL NOT DISCLOSE THIS INFORMATION,

Please click on the links below:

http://www.techrepublic.com/article/in-wake-of-london-terrorism-business-continuity-planning-follows-pragmatic-course/#.

http://www.slideshare.net/preparis/new-trends-in-terrorism-preparedness-business-continuity

http://www.metts.com.au/counter-terrorism-mngt.html

http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/tip/Terrorism-and-counterterrorism-awareness-for-business-continuity-planners

http://www.ifmaphilly.org/professional-development/45-archives/156-effects-of-terrorism-on-business-continuity   

http://www.afro.who.int/en/lesotho/press-materials/item/5312-lesotho-develops-national-business-continuity-plan.html  

You can also conduct your independent search on the internet. The government need to encourage this knowledge. If the United States, and other countries are using this knowledge, it is worthwhile that we take a second look at this topic.

Course Content of BCP

Pre-Planning

1.Program Initiation and Management
2.Risk Evaluation and Control
3.Business Impact Analysis
Planning
4.Developing Business Continuity Strategies
5.Emergency Preparedness and Response
6.Developing and Implementing Business Continuity Plans

Post-Planning

7.Awareness and Training Programs
8.Business Continuity Plan Exercise, Audit, and Maintenance
9.Crisis Communications
10.Coordination with External Agencies